Confirmed and planned presentations for the 2017 Americas Cash Cycle Seminar (ICCOS)
(listedis alphabetical order, by Presenter last name)
Electronic Payment Systems and their Impact on Cash
Marvin Alvarado Quesada has been the Director of the Treasury Department at the Central Bank of Costa Rica for the last eight years. In this position, he has led the projects "Custodias Auxiliares de Numerario," which decentralized custody of part of the Bank’s cash inventory in the commercial banks' vaults, as well as Numerario Market and the “New Costa Rican Banknote." All projects related to the strategy to increase efficiency in payment system management in Costa Rica, in particular with cash as a means of payment.
He holds a Bachelor's degree in Business Administration from the Universidad Latina de Costa Rica and a Master’s in Project Management from the University for International Cooperation.
Presentation synopsis: Coming soon!
The Evolving Role of Cash: Trends in U.S. Currency & Let's Talk: The Future of Cash - Challenges and Opportunities
Alex Bau joined the Federal Reserve in 2010. He has spent 6 years in the Cash Product Office, which formulates policies and strategies for currency and coin services provided by all Reserve Banks across the United States and internationally. His responsibilities include administering and reviewing key components of the Federal Reserve’s Recirculation Policy, as well as other policies and service levels that together determine how the Federal Reserve meets its mission to ensure confidence in US currency. Alex holds a BS in Business Administration from the University of Southern California, with concentrations in Finance and Management Information Systems.
Presentation synopsis: The evolution of cash's role in society–and the way that our organizations handle this evolution—can manifest itself in several ways, from the cash volumes we see within our operations to the efficiency, flexibility, and resilience of the overall cash handling supply chain. The Federal Reserve will share an overview of the cash handling industry and cash trends, based on the latest findings from research and industry outreach efforts.
Let's Talk presentation synopsis: Following their presentation on US cash trends, the Federal Reserve will facilitate an interactive, general-session workshop, where participants can share perspectives on the role of cash within their organizations. The Fed will incorporate these ideas into a strategic discussion about how to consider the next decade of cash demand. Sli.do feedback technology will be leveraged to capture our topics of discussion and their prevalence.
Francois Beau Yon de Jonage
Senior Vice President
Bio: François Beau Yon de Jonage is Senior Vice President at the Global Payments Division of INTL FCStone Ltd, a subsidiary of INTL FCStone Inc. He is a leading expert in the global payments and foreign exchange with a strong emphasis on emerging and frontier markets, and utilizes his significant expertise and extensive knowledge in these fields to drive the Company’s growth. Prior to INTL FCStone, Mr. Beau Yon de Jonage served as Managing Director at Société Générale, where he managed the firm’s Global Exotic Currency sales and trading. Earlier in his career, he worked as Vice President at BNP Paribas on the firm’s G-10 and Emerging Markets FX desk. He holds a Masters Degree in Economics and Finance from the University of Geneva, as well as a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics from the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis.
Presentation synopsis: Organizations looking to make cross-border payments into Latin America have changed significantly over the past 2 decades and have permanently impacted the payments landscape. While transferring funds into developing and frontier markets can be fraught with difficulties, Latin America stands out for the various levels of institutional complexity, foreign exchange controls and central bank regulations. We will look at the evolution of the landscape, the challenges and the answers of today’s market reality.
Panelist - CMAA Workshop
Panelist - Cash Visibility: Experiences and Path Forward
Vice President and Chief Strategist
Cash Product Office, Federal Reserve System
Bio: Barbara A. Bennett is Vice President and Chief Strategist for the Federal Reserve System Cash Product Office where she is responsible for policy and strategy formulation for the Federal Reserve Banks’ FedCash® Services function. She monitors emerging trends in payments practices, cash usage and currency quality, and works to promote a collaborative approach to cash supply chain issues. She has also been involved in Fed efforts to foster the development of a “faster payments” system in the U.S. Ms. Bennett holds a Bachelor of Arts in History from the University of California, Riverside, and a Master’s in Public Policy from the University of California, Berkeley.
Trends in Cash Usage in Latin Armerica
Bio: Information will be posted soon.
Presentation synopsis: What is driving the cash usage in Latin America and ultimately, what is the current situation on the many electronic payment instruments that have been developed and deployed to gain market share and thus cannibalize cash. We will delve into the projections of digital/mobile banking usage and cards issuance from a financial institution’s perspective to understand further the impact these are having across the markets. Have the technology adoption rates affected the markets and what impact are these having in increasing financial inclusion?
Thinking About Using Data to Optimise Your Cash Operations? This is Already Happening Around the World - Discover How
Bio: Jamie Cockerell joined the De La Rue Cash Processing Solutions division twenty years ago, where he started as an implementation consultant. After four years responsible for the Enterprise Cash Management (ECM™) integrated cash supply chain platform, he is now responsible for CPS's Business Consultancy activities and has provided consultancy to over 100 cash processing operations worldwide.
Presentation synopsis: Everyone is talking about data. Data is everywhere, but harnessing this data and turning it into something useful is key. For central banks, this means being able to accurately forecast future demand for cash, maximise the performance of banknotes in circulation, optimise future banknote design and specification and set the right clean note policy. This also means enabling central banks to independently check that their new banknotes, before being issued into circulation are produced to the correct specification and quality levels. Discover how central banks across the world are already achieving this and how you too can optimise your cash cycle and reduce your cost of cash.
Panelist - Cash Visibility: Experiences and Path Forward
Bio: J.R. Davis is Senior Vice President at Davis Bancorp, a privately held protective services and cash-in-transit firm headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. His core responsibilities include strategic planning, process management, and security company-wide. J.R. is a Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE), licensed Private Detective and Private Security Contractor, and presently serves as a representative on the Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group at the U.S. Treasury Department. He is also currently the President of the Independent Armored Car Operators Association, Bankers Document Storage Corporation, and the Smith Museum of Stained Glass and American Art, and a board member of the Chicago Crime Commission.
Managing Director, Americas and Caribbean
Bio: Before joining Currency Research, Shaun spent 16 years at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Shaun began his career in currency in 2000 in the Division of Monetary Affairs where he forecasted daily changes in currency in circulation. In 2003, he transitioned to the Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems where he oversaw all operational and policy aspects of U.S. banknote issuance and processing.
Shaun was appointed Assistant Director in 2013 and was responsible for the global issuance of U.S. currency and operations of Reserve Bank cash processing centers. Shaun is an expert on the usage and circulation of U.S. currency and represented the Federal Reserve on numerous domestic and international policy making groups. Shaun also chaired the Committee on Custody Controls and served on the Interagency Currency Design Committee where he gained extensive knowledge of security features, design elements, and counterfeit risks.
Shaun graduated from Connecticut College with bachelor degrees in Government and Economics and later earned a masters degree from John Hopkins University in Applied Economics. He currently resides just outside Washington, D.C., in Springfield, Virginia.
Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
Bio: Chris Forbes is Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, responsible and accountable for cybersecurity. He is also part of a consortium of twelve Federal Reserve Information Security Officers who collaborate closely on the development and implementation of Federal Reserve System (FRS) security policies and initiatives. Chris brings more than 35 years of experience as a technology, security, and risk executive with specific expertise in banking and financial services, including experience with the compliance and regulatory requirements of the Federal Reserve System. He received a Master of Business Administration degree from Walsh College in Troy, Michigan, and his Bachelor of Science degree from Excelsior College in Albany, New York.
Presentation synopsis: Participants will gain an understanding of why the cash supply chain should care about IT security, what are potential areas of disruption, and how to speak with IT colleagues about making your operations reliable and resilient.
Demystifying the Paradox of Declining Use, Yet Increasing Circulation Volumes
International Association of Currency Affairs (IACA)
Bio: As Executive Director of the International Association of Currency Affairs (IACA), Eugenie Foster provides leadership for all of IACA’s programs and works with its Board to support central banks and cash industry suppliers in making cash the best that it can be. In particular, for more than seven years Eugenie has monitored central bank research on consumer payments for IACA’s Global Payment Survey Project. She has worked with economists and cash experts at central banks to identify and analyze payment trends around the world.
Eugenie’s strategic problem solving and risk management skills reflect 20 years of experience at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the U.S. Treasury Department, and the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group. Her range of expertise includes counterfeit deterrence, banknote distribution, public education, legislative affairs, and communications.
Presentation synopsis: For the past several years, countries around the world have noticed declining use of currency, but circulation volumes continue to rise. What explains this phenomenon? This presentation reconciles the apparent contradiction between rising currency in circulation and diminishing use of cash as a proportion of consumer expenditures. Recently completed papers from England and Australia provide interesting insights.
Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Bio: Amy Goodman is Vice President of Cash Operations for the Sixth District of the Federal Reserve Bank. The District has four processing sites located in Atlanta, Jacksonville, Miami and New Orleans and services the bulk of the southeast region of the United States. Amy also serves as the District’s representative to the System Cash Advisory Group and is active in many policy and operations committees and workgroups. A native of New Orleans, Louisiana, she received a degree in special education from the University of Southwestern Louisiana and has completed executive development programs at the University of Tennessee and the University of Cornell.
Bio: Dan Harrison has 25 years’ experience working in the Currency industry. He has held senior management and senior sales roles in a variety of highly regarded multi-national companies including CSI, De La Rue and Prosegur, providing solutions across the cash cycle. Dan has worked closely with Central Banks, Issuing Banks/Authorities, Commercial Banks, Cash Management and Logistics Companies, Casinos, and ATM Deployers, as well as small, medium, and large Retailers across Europe and the South East Asia region.
Dan has led teams working with these organisations to deliver tailored solutions including high-speed automation, medium speed processing systems, Cash Management Software, Cash recycling, and Self Service solutions. Dan is also experienced in designing and delivering Cash Management and Cash Logistics services to the FI and Retail sectors.
As VP Operations at Currency Research Dan combines this wealth of experience across the currency industry with his passion for Education and Learning. He holds a Bachelors Degree of Education and Training from the University of Melbourne; during his studies he was awarded a place on the Dean Honours List. Dan is currently based in Melbourne Australia.
Panelist: CMAA Workshop
Director of Cash Services
Cash Services UK
Bio: David Hensley has over 25 years of experience in senior management with Santander covering business transformation, operations, and customer services. He has held non-executive roles with two leading financial services providers (Link & BACs) and since 2012 he has been Director of Cash Services UK. Cash is the primary payments system in the UK and it remains fundamentally important to the UK economy. Cash Services UK provides strategic direction on access to cash ensuring that cash can circulate efficiently and effectively.
Presentation synopsis: In the last 35 years transactional use of cash in the UK has fallen by 40% and is estimated to fall by a further 40% over the next 10 years to around 20%.
However, the UK cash industry has recognised the challenges of this decline, recognising that consumers will always expect the same features from payments and the introduction of electronic alternatives will not change these expectations.
This means that cash will always play a fundamental part in every economy in the world and talk of a cashless society is reckless. We predict that we will be cardless long before we are cashless.
The key challenge is lower demand for cash & higher levels of recirculation creating over capacity, which leads to rising fixed costs and excessive capital demands. If this challenge is not managed properly, it could damage the sustainability of cash.
In the last of a series of six speeches over the past two years on the impact of declining volumes, David Hensley of Cash Services UK (CSUK) will discuss how to avoid “check mate” with the card industry through three key themes covering:
- what really controls the pace of substitution;
- how the cash industry should behave in a declining market; and,
- how to choose the right strategy.
The presentation will be illustrated with case studies from over 30 years of industry collaboration.
Bio: A native of Denmark, Bo H. Holmgreen attended the Technical University of Denmark and earned a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering and an MBA. He was the Founder, President & CEO of Transoft International Inc., a leading provider of cash supply chain management software solutions for the banking, ATM, and Armored Car industries. In late 2012, Mr. Holmgreen sold Transoft International to NCR Corporation, and joined NCR as Vice President & General Manager of Cash Solutions. He now dedicates himself to four non-profit organizations, two of which operate in the cash management industry, including the Cash Management Association of the Americas (CMAA).
In 2015, Mr. Holmgreen decided to apply his entrepreneurial skills to a non-profit called GreenCash, seeking new environmental approaches to the global cash supply chain, tax credits for CO2 off-setting, and generally applying new distributed cash recycling methods to simplify cash flows between industry stakeholders. Mr. Holmgreen has been active in the EFT Association, RBR, and ICCOS, has published a number of industry articles, and has been a familiar speaker at many international and domestic conferences.
Presentation synopsis: The mission of the CMAA is to bridge the gap of networking and communications amongst cash management stakeholders in the many countries that constitute the Americas region. This presentation will discuss the reasons why it is vital to have a full range of stakeholder participation and how the association’s objectives for the coming year will benefit its membership.
Executive Director, Centralized Transaction Operations
Bio: Carl Harler is an Executive Director for JPMorgan Chase who is currently focused on business planning and strategy for cash processing. In his current capacity he is focused on site location strategy, outsourcing analysis, cash inventory management, and emerging project implementations. Prior to his current role, he held a series of operations management positions in various treasury and processing operations. He holds a BS in Management Science from Virginia Tech and an MBA in Finance from Pace University in New York.
Presentation synopsis: Information will be posted soon.
Panelist - Cash Visibility: Experiences and Path Forward
Wells Fargo Bank
Bio: Laura Juliano is a Vice President at Wells Fargo Bank responsible for managing an extensive third-party Cash Vault network. Her areas of focus include building partnerships with executive leadership, conducting root/cause and problem solving analyses, and facilitating project management and process improvement implementations. As a 22-year veteran of Wells Fargo, Laura has spent 15 years of her career in various Cash Vault capacities. With an undergraduate Degree in Education and a Graduate Degree in Organizational Management, Laura utilizes her skills to influence and inspire change while driving industry best practices. Laura is married with two children and lives in Palm Beach, FL.
Effects of Global Trends: How Digitalization and Automation Change our Industry!
Vice President, Central Banks
G+D Currency Technology
Bio: Lorraine Laviolette is Vice President, Central Banks & Banknote Printers within the Currency Management Solutions Division of Giesecke & Devrient America, Inc. (GDAI). She is responsible for G&D's central bank and banknote printer customers in the U.S. and Canada.
Prior to joining G&D seven years ago, Lorraine worked with the Bank of Canada for twenty three years in various roles within the banknote business. Responsibilities included managing the Bank Note Distribution System in place with commercial banks as well as operations centers in Toronto and Montreal, and was a Director with the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group.
Presentation synopsis: Automation and digitalization have become a reality in all areas of our daily lives. Both have now reached our industry raising questions concerning what to do, how to do it and when. Stand-alone, off-line banknote processing systems are a thing of the past. They are increasingly being connected to form the core of smart factories. Communication and collaboration between machines as well as human – machine interaction enable increased business intelligence. This session will share how global trends are influencing our business and can benefit all participants across the value chain.
Substrate Embedded Security
Bio: Mike is the director of business line management for Giesecke+Devrient Currency Technology America, Inc. He is responsible for portfolio and product management for G+D’s banknote processing solutions across all market segments in the North America region. These activities include analyzing market trends, evaluating emerging technologies, and contributing to the development G+D’s regional product strategy.
Prior to his current assignment, Mike worked as an electrical engineer and headed a number projects delivering print quality inspection systems to both security and banknote printing customers.
Presentation synopsis: The counterfeit threat persists and new and advancing technologies continue to push boundaries for suppliers to make banknotes more secure. The visible advances in attractive difficult-to- copy level 1 features have had a significant positive impact on the publics propensity to look at their notes more closely. Threads, foils and patches have shifting light effects, 3D effects and easy to recognize patterns. In tandem with this trend is the need to maintain confidence with the commercial sector and their confidence in level 2 features. With the growing range of substrates, suppliers must ensure that the reliability and durability of machine readable features continues to provide functionality and performance in the banknote life cycle. How do different substrates perform differently in cash processing systems? And the issuers continues to require the optimal authentication solution.
President and Chief Executive Officer
Lowers Risk Group
Bio: D. Mark Lowers serves as President and Chief Executive Officer of Lowers Risk Group, a provider of enterprise-wide risk mitigation and loss prevention, employment screening, and data intelligence services through its three complementary companies: Lowers & Associates, Proforma Screening Solutions, and Wholesale Screening Solutions. Mark is also a certified fraud examiner and President of Lowers & Associates, a firm specializing in risk mitigation, international risk management, and loss prevention services that provides services to insurance companies, banks, the cash-in-transit industry, and other financial institutions. He has served in this capacity since 2004.
Presentation synopsis: Almost everyone who uses email and other common Internet utilities has been exposed to social engineering attacks. D. Mark Lowers will discuss the important human risk factors you need to address in your risk management plan. Your efforts to protect the computer systems in your organization against technical intrusion will be pointless if the people who have access to them are vulnerable to social engineering attacks. You will learn: The four-staged method most scams follow, why social engineering attacks are so successful, and how to recognize and respond to an attacker's methods.
Efficiencies in Currency Production: Lessons from our New Malta Printing Facility
Commercial Director, USGP
Bio: Information will be posted soon.
A Currency Automation Twofer: Lower Cost of Acceptance + Improved CX
Senior Analyst, Banking Group
Bio: Bob Meara is a Senior Analyst with Celent's banking practice, focusing on branch and ATM delivery channels, omnichannel delivery, and check and cash payment processing technologies. A well-known authority on remote deposit capture, Bob has led consulting engagements involving financial services hardware, software, and the impact of self-service on branch banking. Before joining Celent, Bob was the Director of Product Marketing at Alogent and also held positions in marketing and brand management at BellSouth, Hayes Corporation, and Procter & Gamble. He was also a commissioned naval officer. Bob earned a Bachelor of Science in Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University.
Presentation synopsis: Cash remains no stranger at the point of sale and itsenexorable decline will be protracted. As retailers seek to improve customers’in- store experience in the face of relentless competition and growth in digital commerce, cash handling presents a two-fold challenge; 1) Cost associated with cash acceptance is not declining in proportion to volume, and 2) cash handling consumes resources needed for customer engagement. This presentation demystifies Remote Cash Capture and explains why a growing number of retailers embrace its use.
Using Technology to Maximise Efficiency in the Commercial Cash Centre
Bio: Barbara Myatt recently joined CPS as the Head of Sales for the Americas and Caribbean. She has been in the cash processing industry for over 23 years working with Central Banks, Commercial Banks, Armored Carriers and Casinos. Barbara has a proven history of improving the efficiencies in vault operations using hardware and software technology.
Presentation synopsis: In the commercial sector customers and revenue generation are key. Finding ways to generate new revenue while looking after your customers is critical, but this cannot be at the expense of efficient operation. Optimum efficiency can be achieved through the implementation of software and efficient processing methodologies to automate processes. This reduces costs and turnaround time, and increases throughput and visibility & control of the process. This presentation will explore case studies of commercial banks who have undergone this transformation and the tangible improvements it has created.
Cash Cycle Optimization in Argentina
Eduardo Ulises Peralta
Commercial Banking and Operations Demand Manager for the Technology Management
Santander Rio S.A.
Bio: Mr. Eduardo Peralta has more than 25 years of experience in the financial industry, which has evolved over time and with various financial institutions within the Santander Group (Santander Rio, Altec Chile, Origins AFJP, etc.), as well as with other Argentinian financial entities. He is currently responsible for meeting the demand of Commercial Banking and Digital Transformation (Technology, Efficiency, and Quality) for Santander Rio.
Presentation synopsis: Argentina's current banking climate is impacted by high transportation as well as financial costs to do business. Santander will explain the decisions leading up to the deployment of a cash management software solution, OptiCash, in order to mitigate those costs.
Panelist - CMAA Workshop
Executive Vice President -Cash Managment Solutions
FireKing Security Group
Bio: Jim Poteet is Executive Vice President – Cash Management Solutions at FireKing, responsible globally for sales, service, and corporate marketing. Jim joined FireKing from Treasury Strategies, Inc., where he provided consulting services to firms and financial institutions on payments, treasury, and technology. In addition, he previously served as Senior VP – North American Strategy and Innovation at Brinks. Jim has held senior leadership positions at Fifth Third Bank, Bank of America, and Wachovia Bank. He is a frequent speaker at industry events, where he leverages his extensive background in cash management product development, operations, and sales.
Let's Talk: The Future of Cash - Challenges and Opportunities
Director, Administration, Communications, Culture, and Industry Programs
Cash Product Office, Federal Reserve System
Bio: Margaret Riley leads the CPO’s engagement efforts with cash industry participants, including depository institutions, armored carriers, and large U.S. merchants and is also responsible for the administration of the Federal Reserve’s cash industry programs with industry partners. Margaret also leads external communications for FedCash® Services, including communications to customer depository institutions and the public.
Margaret joined the CPO in April 2017 with an extensive record of accomplishment serving the Federal Reserve. Most recently, she was the manager of District Support and Operations for the Financial Institution Supervision and Credit division (FISC). Margaret holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Fordham University and a Master’s degree of International Affairs, International Economic Policy from Columbia University.
Presentation synopsis: Following their presentation on US cash trends, the Federal Reserve will facilitate an interactive, general-session workshop, where participants can share perspectives on the role of cash within their organizations. The Fed will incorporate these ideas into a strategic discussion about how to consider the next decade of cash demand. Sli.do feedback technology will be leveraged to capture our topics of discussion and their prevalence.
SmartSafe Transformation in Puerto Rico
Bio: Information will be posted soon.
Vice-President, Payments and Business Development
Bio: Mr. Gonzalo Santamaria has honed much of his leadership skills and industry knowledge within a realm spanning more than 30 years of technical, commercial and managerial experience in the currency sector. He has forged much of his background first in the technical, and consequently in the commercial and business development streams within world-class supplier companies in the industry. In parallel, he has accumulated valuable experience in automation of banknote processing, process re-engineering, supply-chain optimization and efficiencies through security of cash in the cash cycle. During these tenures and in diverse global locations, he successfully assisted in designing and implementing state-of-the-art automated currency vault solutions, cash management re-engineering including commercial cash processing patents, and supply chain optimization solutions. As of 2017, Gonzalo was promoted to Vice President of Payments & Business Developement to foster and manage the consulting arm of the business additionally to the Central Bank Payments and Infrastructure initiatives.
Business Continuity and the Necessity of Cash: Stories from a Historic 2017
Vice President, National Operations, Risk and Resiliency, Applications Product Management
Cash Product Office, Federal Reserve System
Bio: Steve Son leads the CPO National Cash Operations, Risk and Resiliency, and Applications Product Management. He ensures that the Federal Reserve Banks supply currency and coin to meet marketplace demand efficiently and effectively during normal business and in times of stress. He co-chairs the Federal Reserve Cash Services’ (FedCash® Services) Committee on Custody Controls, which establishes cash handling custody control principles and standards for all Federal Reserve Banks. Steve provides functional product direction to advance the FedCash Services suite of applications based on the strategic business direction. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Sciences with an emphasis in Economics from the University of California, Irvine.
Presentation synopsis: With the recovery efforts from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria underway, the need for strong business continuity planning is evident. Hear about efforts made by the Federal Reserve System to ensure that the supply of currency met consumer demand in places hit the hardest by these disasters.
Maximizing Cash Centre Productivity
Bio: Mark Trevor pursued a successful leadership career in the Royal Navy, prior to embarking on his corporate career. He has since had extensive experience in a number of senior commercial and operational roles within large international businesses, including Arthur J Gallagher International and Hiscox PLC. He has extensive board and executive management experience, and a strong track record working across international borders in complex businesses. In his current role as Commercial Director, Mark sits on the Vaultex Executive Committee and oversees Sales, Consulting, Product Development, Marketing and Managed Services. Recent successes include winning and implementing a large scale Remote ATM operational and managed service, and building an innovative customer portal to enable self-service reporting, online ordering and forecasting.
Presentation synopsis: Cash centre operators face two fundamental options when considering growth strategies: optimise current operations or build new sites from scratch. Many factors will play a part in this decision – including budget, geography, risk and service provision – but a strive to achieve maximum return on investment is universal.
Regardless of whether an existing or new site is chosen, a key objective is to maximise productivity per square metre whilst optimising efficiency. Equipment, systems, floorplan, people and processes are typically at least semi-controllable – but note quality, customer presentation and seasonality may be less so.
This presentation shares best practice in maximising cash centre productivity whilst retaining efficiency and control. It examines how controllable factors may be utilised, and presents options to mitigate and manage non-controllable factors. It will consider the options for growth – including retrofitting and construction – and recommend an implementation approach to ensure a smooth delivery.